Introduction to steel deck
One of the most well-known materials in the economic field in the implementation of concrete and metal structures and skeletons is the steel deck. High-rise construction is inevitable due to the high cost of land, and structure builders have tried to benefit from options on the table to save costs.
The steel deck is called by other names such as steel deck, pan deck, meta deck. It is the most used of all titles of meta deck.
The price of the steel deck is very reasonable, but it also has other advantages that increase the popularity of this material. They include light weight, ease of installation and speed of execution.
What is a steel deck?
The steel deck is known in the market with the metal name meta deck, if we want to check it with a general view, the steel deck is a metal sheet made of galvanized steel, which is produced in the form of a grooved trapezoid, which is made of this material on the floor or The roof of the building is being built.
Galvanized steel is the most widely used material in the construction industry. Steel deck has a series of important factors, such as suitable physical and chemical properties, affordable price, and easy access to this material, which has made them benefit from steel deck in creating roofs.
History of the steel deck roof
For the first time, galvanized sheet entered the field of construction in 1820 AD. An engineer named Henry Palmer shaped this material into grooves and applied it to the roof of the building. The roof of the building was constructed in 1939 by the Steel Roof Institute with standard finishing. An industry for design, implementation and operation entered the construction industry, and with the passage of time, several changes were formed in the steel deck roof method.
Finally, this system developed with the help of European and American companies and was used as a new system in 1980.
Application of steel deck
The steel deck is used in the construction of the roof of the building in the form of a metal and concrete frame. The steel deck is not specific for the construction of the roof of industrial buildings, while this deck can be used in residential, office and commercial buildings.
Steel sheet has many uses, which can be mentioned here.
1) Creating work platforms for workers in the construction of multi-storey buildings
2) Creating light cement slabs on the floors of buildings.
How to produce a steel deck?
This material is actually the same galvanized sheet that is 1 to 1.5 in width and is produced in coils by the cold form process. In this method, the sheets enter the roll forming machine and with the help of the machine equipment, bends or ridges are created on the sheet during different stages. After the forming steps, the steel deck is cut by electric saw or guillotine machine with specific dimensions and sizes. It should be noted that price fluctuations do not affect the product.
What are the most important advantages of steel deck roof?
Using this sheet has several advantages that we will mention here.
1) Speeding up the implementation of the structure
2) Ease of transportation
3) Execution of several roofs at the same time
4) No need for candle making
5) Remove formatting
6) Dead load analysis
7) Roof thickness deduction
8) Saving concrete consumption
9) Integrity and beauty
10) User diversity
11) Implementation in all kinds of climates
12) Sound and heat insulation
13) High durability and long life
14) Reducing the weight of the structure
Reducing financial and life losses caused by earthquakes and fires
One of the damages and problems that may occur during an earthquake is the fall of non-structural components (blocks and roof tiles), which does not occur in composite steel deck roofs.
If plastofoam materials are used in a structure, the percentage of casualties increases during a fire with gas production.
Placement of a secure work platform at the time of execution
By creating a steel deck roof system permanently, it reduces the risks of the implementation time.
Steel deck roof components
The steel deck roof consists of 5 main components.
1) Galvanized steel sheet
Steel sheet is one of the most important materials for the roof. In galvanizing construction, it is done by the forming method and with the help of the relevant device. Steel sheets for roof covering are known as steel deck roofs.
Steel sheets are produced in two models, trapezoidal and wavy. The steel used in the deck must have a minimum yield stress of 210 MPa. In addition, it is covered with galvanized coating with the help of zinc metal and the amount The thickness of zinc on the surface of the metal sheet is about 8/. It is up to 1.2 mm. The galvanization process must be done on both sides of the sheet.
connection shear stud is a simple device that is called a stud in Persian language. This small device connects the sheet to the secondary beams. The number of studs is placed inside the sheet based on the calculations. It is taken and the connection is established with the help of welding. One of the important tasks of this stud is to divide the load on the roof to the sub-beams.
The reinforcement of the roof is done with the help of rebar. The rebar grids are embedded on steel sheets and connected to studs. Concrete prevents.
concrete is placed on the steel sheets and the pressure of the roof is on these concretes, so it is necessary to use quality concretes.
Flushing is one of the components that is used in the execution of the deck roof. In fact, a sheet with a thickness of about 5 mm with a small amount of bending is used on the edge of the decks to prevent the concrete from coming out of the roof.
Types of steel decks
The steel deck is divided into three general categories.
1) Normal steel deck
2) Composite steel deck
3) Molded steel deck
1) They use ordinary steel decks to create smooth and non-sloping or slightly sloping roofs.
2) The design of composite steel deck is such that it has protrusions and indentations that this design creates an integrated structure in the concrete slab and steel deck.
3) Due to its special design, the molded steel deck is easily installed compared to the previous two models, and there is no need for a wooden mold.
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