Buy polyurethane foam in Iran
Polyurethane foam is an insulating material that is used as the middle core of a sandwich panel. In this article, we intend to provide you with information about polyurethane foam and its features and applications.
Kimia Panel, a producer of polyurethane sandwich panels, offers ceiling and wall sandwich panels with several years of useful and productive experience, with expert and experienced consultants, and using the best services and quality raw materials and experienced staff. At your service, dear dignitaries.
Table of Contents
Polyurethane foam is one of the petroleum products that plays an effective role in our daily life due to its applications. This useful product is used for the production of decorative items and packaging, electrical appliances, furniture, and strategically used as insulation. We want to examine the history of polyurethane foam production and find out where it comes from and how it is produced.
History of production of flexible polyurethane foam
More than half a century ago, the plastic industry used the polymerization method to produce plastic. In 1973, a German scientist, with the help of his colleagues, got to know another process called multi-addition reaction.
The operation of this process was that isocyanate was combined with a DL along with a catalyst and produced a product called polyurethane. During World War II, polyurethane foam was used to cover airplanes, at that time it was still known as polyurethane foam. It had not yet entered the consumer market in 1952. Two years after this incident, polyurethane foam or foam flex and poly-el, polyester were produced. These produced materials were used to make hard polyurethane foam and elastomers.
Over time, various types of polyurethane products were produced in the United States and England between 1941 and 1958. Polyurethane foams have entered the market with various types since long ago and created a new path for themselves. Today, this new product It is very widely used.
Kitchen sponges, packaging, filters and sound insulation, as well as the production of sandwich panels with polyurethane foam, are among the products of this valuable material.
What is polyurethane foam?
Polyurethane is one of the petroleum derivatives and polymer materials that has two phases, solid and gas, which is called plastic or polymer foam, which is divided into two categories: thermoplastic and thermostat.
The bonds forming polyurethane are in the form of -NH-C(=O)-O. The bond created is the result of the reaction of organic groups, isocyanate and hydroxyl groups, but other substances such as ether and ester are present in polymer materials. Polyurethane is called PUR and polyurethane foam are introduced as PUR foam.
Polyurethane consists of two liquid parts, A and B. A is considered as the main material and B is considered as an additive, which creates an average density. A lot of heat is integrated and quickly increases the volume of production materials, which increases by 20 to 30 times. In fact, due to the chemical reaction, it turns from the gas phase into a solid. That is, the bond created is the result of the reaction of organic groups, isocyanate and hydroxyl groups, but other substances such as ether, ester, are available in polymer materials. Polyurethane is called PUR and foam. Polyurethane is introduced as PUR foam.
Due to its large volume, the produced material is quickly spread and consolidated and creates a unified texture and can be transformed into the desired shape. This product has special properties that depend on the density, such as mechanical, thermal, and sound, which are the most important advantages of this product.
This material has important characteristics, such as high resistance, elasticity, high adhesion, resistance to the entry of insects… these characteristics have made it widely used in different industries.
Polyurethane is implemented with the help of three processes: spraying, injection, pouring
Each process is executed according to the need and at a certain time.
The spraying method is done for a short time. But the other two methods take more time. Forming is done quickly during spraying, but the injection and pouring method requires more time to form, and the injection operation requires a mold that can take a special shape.
Feature of soft polyurethane foam
This soft material has a texture consisting of open cells and the amount of air that exists between the cells makes the material flexible and elastic, and thus it is used to make all kinds of furniture, dining chairs and mattresses.
Soft foam has a very light weight and the density of this foam is between 35 and 55 kg/m3. The important features of soft foam are long life and durability, low heat transfer coefficient, and very high sound absorption. If exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet rays It reacts and changes color quickly. One of the disadvantages of this material is that it is not resistant to acids and bases.
Feature of semi-soft polyurethane foam
The combination of certain amount of polyester and isocyanate produces semi-soft foam. If there is a change in the formulation of this compound, the properties of the produced materials can be changed.
Features of rigid polyurethane foam
The cell tissue of hard polyurethane is closed and the heat transfer coefficient is low compared to other foams. This foam is used as the middle core of the sandwich panel.
The thickness of the foam is determined according to the customer’s request and the type of use. The temperature difference between the inside and outside influences the thickness of the poly insulation, and as a result, it will have a different conductivity coefficient.
Polyurethane foam production method
The production process of hard polyurethane is done by the reaction of several materials, including isocyanate, polyol, catalyst, bulking agent.
The mentioned materials are combined with each other and react with the help of a nozzle and are sprayed on the bottom sheets of the panel. With the help of a bulking agent, the injected material with a larger volume is placed between the two sheets and causes them to be connected, and by passing through the press section, three layers are formed. A coherent sandwich panel is formed. In the next step, the sandwich panel is transferred to the cutting department and is cut according to the customer’s demand.
What is polyurethane foam spray?
Polyurethane spray can be used in various forms, such as ceiling, wall and even floor sandwich panels. Polyurethane foam can be used as a spray or injection; And it can be sprayed in the seams of the structure. This material consists of a combination of polyol and isocyanate and can be injected on surfaces and pores. You can spray the material in the desired place and immediately after a few seconds it hardens completely and the insulation is completed.
The spray can be done directly on the wall or ceiling covering or even during the installation process. The best solution is to spray the material by installers and expert and experienced people because the areas such as the crotch and tongue of the sandwich panel are sensitive and must be observed. The necessary standards must be met to achieve the best results.
At the same time, it should be mentioned that factors such as the rate of spraying and injection of materials, the temperature of the said surface and the amount of pressure control and even the thickness of the layer are effective factors in the implementation.
Polyurethane foam has unique features that include
- Low thermal coefficient
- The amount of density in the insulation section is about 30-60, but the normal amount of density is about 40, which also has the highest thermal insulation.
- Resistant to natural events such as storms, floods, earthquakes and fires
- Long lifespan
- Low weight
- Resistant to oil derivatives and solvents
- Resistant to water vapor
- Lack of growth of bacteria and microorganisms
- High level of adhesion
- Non-toxic and recyclable to the ecosystem
Difference between type B1, B2 and B3 polyurethane foam
Polyurethane foam is divided into three general categories in terms of chemical composition; B1, B2, and B3, which are fireproof and slow-burning or (self-extinguishing) and flame retardant, respectively.
B1 type foam is completely fire resistant and does not burn at all. B2 type foam is slow-burning or self-extinguishing and it is easily extinguished and does not ignite in the face of fire and has high resistance.
B3 type foam is weak against fire and easily ignites and burns in case of fire. B1 foam cannot be produced in Iran due to economic conditions and high cost. Because buying and producing such a product in Iran is expensive. It can’t even be tested and therefore it’s not affordable.
Therefore, they use PIR foam to produce sandwich panels, which is still available in some cases.
PIR foam is more resistant to fire than type B2, but it is not comparable to type B1. In the current conditions and the minimum available facilities, the better option is when we do not have access to PIR and B1 foam, we can use type B2 foam. Or the features that meet the needs of users.
Kimia Panel Company of Shiraz is a leader in the production of sandwich panels made of polyurethane foam with density 40 and type B2, using a five-component foam machine. Therefore, the said foam has the highest amount of temperature insulation and is slow-burning or self-extinguishing and can bear tensile and compressive resistances.
Thank you for helping us until the end of the article. We hope that it will be welcomed by you, dear customers.You can follow our products through Aparat channel.